Saturday, 24 March 2012

Grammar Essentials for age 10

Nouns, verbs, pronouns, prepositional words, connectives, pronouns , proverbs, idioms, slangs  
Nouns-  special names begin with capital letters
Describing words (make sentences more interesting)
Comparative nouns
Collective nouns
More (-er) most (-est)
Singular and plural nouns
Verbs regular  past tense (-ed)
Use past tense consistently
Use verb tenses with increasing accuracy in speaking and writing
Did/ done (has), catch /caught , give/ gave
Verbs is/are, was/ were
Verb tense: present, past, future
Auxillary verbs – have, was, shall, will
Verb forms – active, interrogative, imperative
Adverb (-ly) (how words)
Find good adverbs to describe the verb
Plurals (s, es) more than one
Articles a and an
Use of article an with words beginning with silent h in an hour
Owning words (pronouns) my, his, her, its, yours
Pronouns – whom, who, which, it
Person – 1st, 2nd, 3rd
Opposite words
Person verb agreement (I run, you run, he runs, they run)
Noun / pronoun/ verb agreement ( I ma, they are, we are, he is)
Verb / noun agreement
Comparative adjectives e.g. long, longer, longest
Connectives ‘and’ and ‘but’  to join two simple sentences
Collective nouns –e.g.  a team of players
Abstract nouns e.g.  feelings, thoughts
Gender of nouns
Main clause & dependent clause
Figures of speech – similes, metaphors, personification
Ongoing work on: Phrases, sentences & paragraphs.
Other connectives:
When, because, until, before,
Use these to form complex sentences (dependent clause)
Teach sentence with two verbs of equal weight is a compound sentence
More connectives
Until, before, after, unless, if
Use alternative (powerful) adverbs and adjectives to make writing more interesting
Direct and indirect speech
Investigate word classes e.g.
Noun (pleasure) Adjective (pleasant) Verb(please)  Adverb (pleasurably) 

Adverbial phrases – adverbs of
Manner (how it was done)
Time (when it was done)
Place ( where it was done)
Use of standard English:
Concord agreement of singular with singular and plural with plural.
Agreement between nouns & verbs
Consistency of tense and subject
Avoidance of double negatives
Avoidance of non-standard dialect words

Teach: Revise composition of simple, compound and complex sentences and the essential points of Grammar at this stage.
Teach:  independent use of dictionaries, thesauri, reference books,  internet research skills  etc.

Know all parts of speech
Capital letter for names
Capital letter for start of  a sentence
Capital letter for personal pronoun I
Capital letter for personal titles (Mr, Mrs)
Use full stop for ending sentences
Use of full stop for abbreviation
Use of full stop for when a word has been made shorter
Use question marks for questions words – who, when, how, what, where, which
Use comma when we take a breath
Use comma in a list
use comma to separate group of words
use comma to separate connectives that come in pairs in sentences e.g. neither nor,
use comma to separate a subordinate clause from the main clause in a sentence
Use of exclamation mark to
Mark surprise, humour, joy
Show fear, anger, pain, danger,
giving an order or shouting
identify speech marks in reading
understand basic conventions of speech punctuation
only put speech marks round actual words spoken
when a quotation is interrupted in mid-sentence, you don’t need a capital letter when you restart the speech.
Before closing or reopening quotation marks there must always be a point of punctuation, usually a comma otherwise a full stop, question mark, or exclamation mark
A new line should be used for each new speaker.
If a speaker quotes someone else, use single quotation marks for the words the speaker is quoting e.g. “ I heard the man shout ‘Run!’, “Amy cried.
Shortening words using full stops or the high comma
Use of apostrophe for ownership /possession
Basic rules for apostrophising
Boy’s hat, boys’ hats
Other uses of capitalisation:
Personal pronoun I
Each line of a poem
Begin exact words spoken in inverted commas
Words in titles
Colon: to signal a list or explanation
To introduce a list or example
Separate two statements where the second explains the first
To introduce a lengthy quotation
To punctuate speech in plays

Punctuation to master:
Respond to punctuations
‘ . ? ! ,    “ ; : - ( ) -- ...  in reading
‘ . ? ! ,    “ ; : - ( )  in writing

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