Saturday, 24 March 2012

Grammar Essentials for age 11

Nouns, verbs, pronouns, prepositional words, connectives, pronouns , proverbs, idioms, slangs 
Nouns-  special names begin with capital letters
Describing words (make sentences more interesting)
Comparative nouns
Collective nouns
More (-er) most (-est)
Singular and plural nouns
Verbs regular  past tense (-ed)
Use past tense consistently
Use verb tenses with increasing accuracy in speaking and writing
Did/ done (has), catch /caught , give/ gave
Verbs is/are, was/ were
Verb tense: present, past, future
Auxillary verbs – have, was, shall, will
Verb forms – active, interrogative, imperative
Active and passive verbs
Adverb (-ly) (how words)
Find good adverbs to describe the verb
Plurals (s, es) more than one
Articles a and an
Use of article an with words beginning with silent h in an hour
Owning words (pronouns) my, his, her, its, yours
Pronouns – whom, who, which, it
Person – 1st, 2nd, 3rd
Opposite words
Person verb agreement (I run, you run, he runs, they run)
Noun / pronoun/ verb agreement ( I ma, they are, we are, he is)
Verb / noun agreement
Comparative adjectives e.g. long, longer, longest
Connectives ‘and’ and ‘but’  to join two simple sentences
Collective nouns –e.g.  a team of players
Abstract nouns e.g.  feelings, thoughts
Gender of nouns
Know all five types of nouns:
Common - dog
Proper - Sandra
Concrete – of real objects
Abstract – qualities, feelings
Collective – groups
Know noun endings –ment, -ship, -ness, -ence, -ance
Main clause & dependent clause
Figures of speech – similes, metaphors, personification
Phrases, sentences & paragraphs
Other connectives:
When, because, until, before,
Use these to form complex sentences (dependent clause)
Teach sentence with two verbs of equal weight is a compound sentence

More connectives
Until, before, after, unless, if
Use alternative (powerful) adverbs and adjectives to make writing more interesting
Direct and indirect speech
Investigate word classes e.g.
Noun (pleasure) Adjective (pleasant) Verb(please)  Adverb (pleasurably) 
Formal & informal language
Adverbial phrases – adverbs of
Manner (how it was done)
Time (when it was done)
Place ( where it was done)
Use of standard English:
Concord agreement of singular with singular and plural with plural.
Agreement between nouns & verbs
Consistency of tense and subject
Avoidance of double negatives
Avoidance of non-standard dialect words
Know all parts of speech
Word classes
1.     Noun
2.     Pronoun
3.     Adjective
4.     Verb
5.     Adverb
6.     Conjunction
7.     Preposition
8.     Interjection
Know figures of speech
Expression & sayings
Colloquialism & slangs
Special effects words

Revise language conventions and grammatical features of different text types through reading and writing
Narratives (e.g. historical stories, traditional stories, fairy tales, science fiction, myths and legends, flashbacks), recounts, instructional, reports, explanation, persuasion, discussions, range of letters, public notices, adverts, diaries, range of poems, description, biography and autobiography.

Teach: Revise composition of simple, compound and complex sentences and the essential points of Grammar at this stage.
Teach:  independent use of dictionaries, thesauri, reference books, internet research skills  etc.

Capital letter for names
Capital letter for start of  a sentence
Capital letter for personal pronoun I
Capital letter for personal titles (Mr, Mrs)
Use full stop for ending sentences
Use of full stop for abbreviation
Use of full stop for when a word has been made shorter
Use question marks for questions words – who, when, how, what, where, which
Use comma when we take a breath
Use comma in a list
use comma to separate group of words
use comma to separate connectives that come in pairs in sentences e.g. neither nor,
use comma to separate a subordinate clause from the main clause in a sentence
Use of exclamation mark to
Mark surprise, humour, joy
Show fear, anger, pain, danger,
giving an order or shouting
identify speech marks in reading
understand basic conventions of speech punctuation
Shortening words using full stops or the high comma
Use of apostrophe for ownership /possession
Basic rules for apostrophising
Boy’s hat, boys’ hats
Other uses of capitalisation:
Personal pronoun I
Each line of a poem
Begin exact words spoken in inverted commas
Words in titles
Colon: to signal a list or explanation
Respond to punctuations
‘ . ? ! ,    “ ; : - ( ) -- ...  in reading
‘ . ? ! ,    “ ; : - ( ) -- ...  in writing
In addition, master:
 Use the dash to show gaps or hesitation
An abrupt change of thought
Use dash with a colon to introduce a list 
Use a dash to show longer pauses instead of brackets
The Hyphen
Use the hyphen:
To join two or more words to make a new compound word e.g. hyper-active , single-minded, long-lasting, up-to-date
To join two syllables of a word when separated at the end of a line e.g. se- parate
To pair with capital letters e.g. anti-British, U-turn
To separate a prefix from it root word where the letter combination will look odd e.g. co-ordinate, re-emit, de-ice
To avoid confusion with an existing word e.g.
re-cover, recover

Use ellipse (dots) to:
Show a break in a phrase or sentence
Scraps of conversation
To show a word or words have been missed out.

The brackets
Placed round words which give extra information which is not absolutely essential e.g. an afterthought or to explain something in the sentence.

The full stop
To show a word has been abbreviated but when the first and last letters are included in the abbreviation, you do not need a full stop: Dr, maths, Mrs, Emi. Utd

Punctuation to master:
Use and respond effectively to all twelve punctuation marks in reading and writing.

‘ . ? ! ,    “ ; : - ( ) -- ... 

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