Saturday, 24 March 2012

Grammar Essentials for age 8

Nouns, verbs, pronouns, prepositional words, connectives, pronouns
Nouns-  special names begin with capital letters
Describing words (make sentences more interesting)
More (-er) most (-est)
Singular and plural nouns
Verbs regular  past tense (-ed)
Use past tense consistently
Use verb tenses with increasing accuracy in speaking and writing
Did/ done (has), catch /caught , give/ gave
Verbs is/are, was/ were
Adverb (-ly) (how words)
Find good adverbs to describe the verb
Plurals (s, es) more than one
Articles a and an
Use of article an with words beginning with silent h in an hour
Owning words (pronouns) my, his, her, its, yours
Opposite words
Person verb agreement (I run, you run, he runs, they run)
Noun / pronoun/ verb agreement ( I ma, they are, we are, he is)
Comparative nouns e.g. long, longer, longest
Connectives ‘and’ and ‘but’  to join two simple sentences
Collective nouns –e.g.  a team of players
Abstract nouns e.g.  feelings, thoughts
Main clause & dependent clause
Figures of speech – similes, metaphors
Other connectives:
When, because, until, before,
Use these to form complex sentences (dependent clause)
Teach sentence with two verbs of equal weight is a compound sentence.
Complex sentence contains a main clause and a subordinate clause.
A phrase is any group of words which taken together in a sentence, function as a part of speech:
Noun phrases act together as a noun - Reading a book is good hobby (what: the subject)
Adjectival phrase act together as an adjective – The woman in the red shiny dress is the owner of the cafe (which woman)
A Verb phrase forms a verb My mum will be leaving for the station in an hour (what does or did the subject do?)
Capital letter for names
Capital letter for start of  a sentence
Capital letter for personal pronoun I
Capital letter for personal titles (Mr, Mrs)
Use full stop for ending sentences
Use of full stop for abbreviation
Use of full stop for when a word has been made shorter
Use question marks for questions words – who, when, how, what, where, which
Use comma when we take a breath
Use comma in a list
Use comma to help make meaning clearer:
Julia says her sister is ill. (sister ill)
Julia, says her sister, is ill (Julia ill).
Use of exclamation mark to
Mark surprise, humour, joy
Show fear, anger, pain, danger,
giving an order or shouting
identify speech marks in reading
understand basic conventions of speech punctuation
Shortening words using full stops or the high comma ‘
Use of apostrophe for ownership /possession
Other uses of capitalisation:
Personal pronoun I
Each line of a poem
Begin exact words spoken in inverted commas
Words in titles

Punctuation to master:
‘ . ? ! ,   

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