Saturday, 24 March 2012

Grammar Essentials for age 9

Nouns, verbs, pronouns, prepositional words, connectives, pronouns
Nouns-  special names begin with capital letters
Describing words (make sentences more interesting)
Comparative nouns
Collective nouns
More (-er) most (-est)
Singular and plural nouns
Verbs regular  past tense (-ed)
Use past tense consistently
Use verb tenses with increasing accuracy in speaking and writing
Did/ done (has), catch /caught , give/ gave
Verbs is/are, was/ were
Verb tense: present, past, future
Adverb (-ly) (how words)
Find good adverbs to describe the verb
Plurals (s, es) more than one
Articles a and an
Use of article an with words beginning with silent h in an hour
Owning words (pronouns) my, his, her, its, yours
Opposite words
Person verb agreement (I run, you run, he runs, they run)
Noun / pronoun/ verb agreement ( I ma, they are, we are, he is)
Verb / noun agreement
Comparative adjectives e.g. long, longer, longest
Connectives ‘and’ and ‘but’  to join two simple sentences
Collective nouns –e.g.  a team of players
Abstract nouns e.g.  feelings, thoughts
Main clause & dependent clause
Figures of speech – similes, metaphors, personification
Phrases, sentences & paragraphs
Other connectives:
When, because, until, before,
Use these to form complex sentences (dependent clause)
Teach sentence with two verbs of equal weight is a compound sentence
More connectives
Until, before, after, unless, if
Use alternative (powerful) adverbs and adjectives to make writing more interesting
Direct and indirect speech
Investigate word classes e.g.
Noun (pleasure) Adjective (pleasant) Verb(please)  Adverb (pleasurably)  

Adverbial phrases answer the questions: how, where, when or why e.g.
Last night, Danielle drove her car carefully down the road, as it was snowing heavily.
How did she drive – carefully (adverb)
Where did she drive – down the road (adverb- where the verb is happening)
When did she drive? Last night (adverb- when the verb happened)
Teach: Complex sentence contains a main clause and a subordinate clause.
Complex sentence can be made up of a single clause(a phrase with one verb) and one or more noun, adjectival or adverbial clauses

Capital letter for names
Capital letter for start of  a sentence
Capital letter for personal pronoun I
Capital letter for personal titles (Mr, Mrs)
Use full stop for ending sentences
Use of full stop for abbreviation
Use of full stop for when a word has been made shorter
Use question marks for questions words – who, when, how, what, where, which
Use comma when we take a breath
Use comma in a list
use comma to separate group of words
use comma to separate connectives that come in pairs in sentences e.g. neither  - nor,
use comma to separate a subordinate clause from the main clause in a sentence
Use of exclamation mark to
Mark surprise, humour, joy
Show fear, anger, pain, danger,
giving an order or shouting
identify speech marks in reading
understand basic conventions of speech punctuation
Shortening words using full stops or the high comma
Use of apostrophe for ownership /possession
To show possession: The girl’s shoe
The girls’ shoes
Use in abbreviation – to show where letters are missing: don’t (do not)
For some unusual plurals: 7’s and 9’s; and p’s and q’s ; and A’s and B’s
Basic rules for apostrophising:
To show possession
A single noun add s, Jane’s hat
A plural noun ending in s, add ‘ boys’ bags
A plural noun not ending in s, add s – women’s bags
Boy’s hat, boys’ hats
Other uses of capitalisation:
Personal pronoun I
Each line of a poem
Begin exact words spoken in inverted commas
Words in titles
Punctuation to master:
Respond to punctuations
‘ . ? ! ,    “ ; : - ( ) -- ...  in reading

No comments:

Post a Comment